3. El concepto de obra desde el musical hasta el registro fonográfico de jazz

3.1 Concepto de obra en el musical

rodgers-hart-life-cover-26-sep-38Babes in Arms is a 1937 musical comedy with music by Richard Rodgers, lyrics by Lorenz Hart and book by Rodgers and Hart. It concerns a group of small-town Long Island teenagers who put on a show to avoid being sent to a work farm by the town sheriff when their actor parents go on the road for five months in an effort to earn some money by reviving vaudeville. Several songs in Babes in Arms became pop standards, including the title song; “Where or When”; “My Funny Valentine”; “The Lady Is a Tramp”; “Johnny One Note” and “I Wish I Were in Love Again” (fuente: Wikipedia, en).

Compositor: Richard Rodgers (June 28, 1902 – December 30, 1979) was an American composer of music for more than 900 songs and for 43 Broadway musicals. He also composed music for films and television (fuente: Wikipedia, en).

Letrista: Lorenz Hart (May 2, 1895 – November 22, 1943) was the lyricist half of the Broadway songwriting team Rodgers and Hart (fuente: Wikipedia, en).

OrquestadorHans Spialek (April 17, 1894 – November 20, 1983) was an Austrian-born American composer and orchestrator. Raised in Vienna and given an early musical education, he continued his studies in Moscow, at first as a prisoner of war during World War I, before settling in the US in 1924 (fuente: Wikipedia, en).

3.2 Concepto de obra en el jazz

Composed pieces or tunes, consisting of a melody and an accompanying harmonic progression, have provided the structure for improvisations throughout  most of the history of jazz. (…) Performers commonly refer to the melody or theme as the head, and to the progressions as chord changes or simply changes. It has become the convention for musicians to perform the melody and its accompaniment at the opening and closing of a piece’s performance. In between, they take turns improvising solos within the piece’s cyclical rhythmic form. A solo can comprise a single pass through the cycle, known as chorus, or it can be extended to include multiple choruses.

Among the characteristics of a composition that can distinguish one artist’s versión from another is the choice of the tonic.

A piece’s precise melodic features can differ from versión to versión. Within an arrangement, singers or instrumentalists who carry the melody can transform it to varying degrees, engaging in compositional activities of increasing “levels of intensity” that Lee Konitz distinguishes along a continuum from interpretation to improvisation (1. Interpretation, 2. Embellishment, 3. Improvisation).

“Additionally, if the player carrying the melody is the first soloist in the group, he or she may depart from the melody before its completion to improvise a musical segue to the solo. In other instances, an individual improvises an introduction to the piece before the group’s entrance, or a cadenza at the piece’s conclusión, or a short ‘break’ passage, during which the other players suspend their performance.”

“… experts [jazz musicians] transform the harmonic structures of a piece as routinely as they do with their melodies. Artists make decisions about certain harmonic features during private sessions and rehearsals, fixing them as part of their formal musical arrangements. They determine other features inmediately before music events or while actually performing.”

Paul F. Berliner (1994): Thinking in Jazz. The Infinite Art of Improvisation (The University of Chicago Press).

3.3 Concepto de obra en el registro sonoro de jazz

Tema. “El tema consiste normalmente en un guión melódico-armónico (lead sheet). El tema puede ser original o tomado de la música popular. El tema puede especificar algún otro elemento relevante, como puede ser un ostinato característico (vamp), además de indicaciones acerca del acompañamiento rítmico (groove). Estos aspectos pueden ser concretados o alterados en la fase de disposición.”

Disposición. “La disposición consiste en el plan acordado por los intérpretes para materializar la obra, bien sea para una interpretación en público, bien para su grabación en estudio. Incluye la distribución de los solos (improvisaciones), la elaboración de arreglos para la presentación del tema, y la confección de una introducción (intro) y una conclusión (outro), si éstas no estaban previstas en el guión.”

Realización. “La realización depende tanto del ensamblaje e interacción entre las partes (drive) como de la calidad de las improvisaciones, que en muchos casos -por ejemplo, al versionar temas de la música popular- puede superar a la del tema en cuestión.”

Postproducción. “En las sesiones de grabación, cabe distinguir una fase de posproducción, que incluye la selección, edición y mezcla de las tomas sonoras.”

El registro discográfico es ya un objeto sonoro, no un plan de acción, como lo es la partitura.

Rafael Fernández de Larrinoa (2016): John Coltrane. Naima, (www.bustena.wordpress.com).

4 “My funny Valentine” del Miles Davis Quintet (1956)


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